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Lichens- Reproduction and Economic Importance

1. Vegetative reproduction in lichen occurs by 
a) Soredia
b) Isidia
c) fragmentation
d) all of these
2. In sexual reproduction, the fruiting body formed is of 
a) apothecium type
b) perithecium type
c) both and b
d) none of these
3. Asexual reproduction in lichen takes place by formation of 
a) zygopores
b) aplanospores
c) pycnidiospores
d) chlamydospores
4. In lichens, sexual reproduction is carried out by 
a) fungal partner
b) algal partner
c) both a and b
d) depends on habitat
5. The male reproductive organ is called 
a) carpogonium
b) trichogyne
c) hymenium
d) spermagonium
6. The female reproductive organ is called 
a) carpogonium
b) trichogyne
c) hymenium
7. The fertile layer of ascocarp where ascus is located is called 
a) paraphysis
b) hymenium
c) peridium
d) subhymenium
8. Each ascus contains generally 
a) 2 ascospores
b) 4 ascospores
c) 8 ascospores
d)16 ascospores
9. If both algal cells and fungal hyphae are uniformly distributed in lichen formation, then called as 
a) homoisomerous lichen
b) heteroisomerous lichen
c) homoheteroisomerous
d)hemiisomerous lichen
10. Litmus is obtained from 
a) Usnea
b) Cladonia
c) Peltigera
d) Roccella
11. Which of the lichen is used to treat hydrophobia? 

a) Peltigera
b) Cetraria
c) Cladonia
d) Graphis
12. Usnic acid, a broad spectrum antibiotic is obtained from 
a) Usnea
b) Cladonia
c) both a and b
d) Usnea only
13. Which of the following lichen is called as the “reindeer moss” (food for reindeer) 
a) Cetraria islandica
b) Cladonia rengiferina
c) Peltigera canina
d) Evernia
14. Which of the following lichen are the pioneers in xerosere 
a) foliose lichens
b) leprose lichens
c) crustose lichens
d) frusticose lichen
15. Letharia vulpine is a poisonous lichen as they secrete 

Letharia vulpine 
a) letharic acid
b) vulpinic acid
c) usnic acid
d) selinium

1. d) all of these
2. c) both and b
3. c) pycnidiospores
4. a) fungal partner
5. d) spermagonium
6. a) carpogonium
7. b) hymenium
8. c) 8 ascospores
9. a) homoisomerous lichen
10. d) Roccella
11. a) Peltigera
12. c) both a and b
13. b) Cladonia rengiferina
14. c) crustose lichens
15. b) vulpinic acid