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Microbial Diseases

CHAPTER-07
Microbial Diseases
Text Book Question and Answers
I. Fill in the blanks with suitable words:
1. Joint pain is one of the symptoms of the viral disease chikungunya.
2. The most characteristic symptom of dengue is a fall in the platelet count.
3. Syphilis is a kind of genital diseases
4. Gonorrhoea is caused by the infection of bacteria niesseria gonorrhoea
5. The virus responsible for causing genital warts is called human papilloma virus.
6. The viral infection in the liver represents a disease called hepatitis B


II. Answer the following questions:
1. Make a list of the common symptoms of Chikungunya?
The common symptoms of chikungunya are:
a. high fever followed by rashes on the trunk region
b. severe pain in joints (arthritis)
c. headache , conjunctivitis, photophobia
2. Name the mosquito responsible for spreading both Chikungunya and Dengue:
The mosquito responsible for spreading both Chikungunya and Dengue is Aedis aegyptii.
3. What are the symptoms of Dengue?
i. headache and fever
ii. Severe muscle and joint pain
iii. Exhaustion
iv. Swollen glands and rashes
v. Bleeding gums, severe pain behind the eyes, redness in palm and soles.
vi. Reduced platelet count in blood.
4. What is meant by sexually transmitted diseases? Name any two of them:
The diseases which generally get transmitted from one person to other through sexual contact are called sexually transmitted diseases. Eg. Syphilis, Gonorrhea.
5. Name the vaccine given to prevent hepatitis:
The vaccine given to prevent hepatitis B is hepatis B immune globulin.
6. Name the viruses responsible for- Chikungunya, genital warts ,hepatitis B and AIDS:
Chikungunya- Alpha virus
Genital warts- human papilloma virus
Hepatitis B- hepatitis b virus
AIDS- Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome.
7. Describe the structure of HIV:
HIV is spherical in shape. It is covered by a membrane made up of two layers of fatty material. In side this membrane, there is a core made up of proteins. In the centre of this core the genetic material RNA is present along with the enzyme reverse transcriptase.
8. What are the ways by which HIV infection spread?
HIV generally spread through,
a. Sexual contact with an infected person.
b. Transfusion of infected blood.
c. Sharing of needles and syringes with an infected person.
d. From an infected mother to the embryo through placenta.


ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS
I. Fill in the blanks:
1. The chances of transmission chikungunya by mosquito bite is more during early morning and late afternoon.
2. The blood test report of a person reveals that the platelet is less than 1 lakh\cubic mm of blood. This indicates that person must be suffering from dengue.
3. Syphyllis is caused by treponema pallidum.
4. The genetic material of HIV is RNA.
5. Break –bone fever is the common name of Dengue.
6. HIV is not transmitted by bite of mosquitoes.
a) Sexual contact with an infected person.
b) Transfusion of infected blood.
c) Bite of mosquitoes.
d) From infected mother to her infant.
II. Write the expanded form of –STD, HPV, HBIG, AIDS
STD-Sexually transmitted diseases
HPV-Human papilloma virus.
HBIG-Hepatitis B immune globulin.
AIDS- Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome.
III. Match the following:
1. Makonde - chikungunya
2. Cirrhosis - hepatitis
3. Breakbone fever -dengue
4. 3 ‘A’ prevention –AIDS

IV. Answer the following questions:
1. What are genital warts? How are they caused?
Genital warts are soft growth on the skin and mucus membranes of the genitals.
They are caused by a virus called Human Papilloma Virus generally by sexual contact with infected person.
2. What are the symptoms of Avian Flu?
a. Cough and breathing difficulty
b. Diarrhea
c. Fever and headache
d. Running nose and sore throat
e. Muscle pain
3. People who work with birds should use protective clothing and breathing masks. Why?
Because birds infected with Avian Flu continue to release the viruses in their faeces and saliva for as long as 10 days. Infection may take place by touching contaminated surface or breath.
4. What is meant by 3’A’ prevention? OR Write the precautions to be taken to prevent infection of HIV:
The 3’A’ prevention refers to prevention of AIDS by,
a. Avoiding sex with multiple partners.
b. Avoiding use of drugs and skin piercing instruments.
c. Avoiding contact with body fluids.
5. Draw the diagram of HIV and label the parts:
image