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Text Book Question and Answers
I. Choose the correct answer from those given, for the following questions.
1. When parenchyma as cells containing chloroplasts, it is called_________
(a)arenchyma (b)chlorenchyma (c)collenchyma (d)sclerenchyma
Answer:(b) Chlorenchyma
2. The conducting elements in phloem are called________
(a)sieve tubes (b)fibres (c)Tracheae (d)trachieds
Answer:(a) sieve tubes
3. Xylem tissue conducts________
(a)only water (b)only food (c)both water and food (d)both water and minerals
Answer:(d) both water and minerals
4. The name endothelium refers to ________
(a)columnar epithelium (b)ciliated epithelium (c)cuboidal epithelium (d)squamous epithelium
Answer:(d) squamous epithelium
5. In animals, fat is stored in ________
(a)areolar tissue (b)cartilage tissue (c)adipose tissue (d)reticular tissue
Answer:(c) adipose tissue
6. The structural and functional unit of nerve tissue is_______
(a)neuron (b)axon (c)dendrite (d)myelin
Answer:(a) neuron
II. Give analogy for the following pairs
1. Heart : Involuntary muscle : : Limbs : Voluntary muscle
2. Adipose tissue : body temperature : : Areolar tissue : Help in body defence
3. Xylem : Water conducting : : Phloem : Food Conducting
4. Calcium : Bone : : Iron : Blood,
III. Answer the following questions in two or three sentences.
1. What is a tissue?
A group of cells which have a common origin structure and function are called tissues
2. What are the functions of epithelial tissue?
Functions of epithelial tissues are
i. Epithelium forms a think tough barrier and protects the underlying tissues in the skin
ii. Epithelium of the skin helps in maintain a constant body temperature
iii. Epithelium in sense organ contain receptor cells
iv. Help in the movement of materials
v. Help in absorption of nutrients and excretion
3. Name the water conducting elements in xylem?
Xylem tracheid and xylem vessels are water conducting elements in xylem
4. What is the economic importance of Phloem tissue?\
Phloem fibres are commercially important. Phloem fibres of hemp and jute are used to manufacture of ropes, cords twines, threads etc.
5. Why are xylem and phloem called vascular bundles?
Xylem and phloem tissues help in transport of materials in plants. Hence there are called vascular bundles.
6. What are the function of areolar tissues?
Areolar tissue consists of macrophages, which defend against microorganism and foreign bodies that enter the body
7. How does lymph protect the body?
Lymph produces antibodies which form an essential part of immune system of the body. It contains a type of white blood cells or phagocytes which remove bacteria and foreign bodies from the tissue.
8. What are the unique features of cardiac muscle?
i. Cordial muscle fibres are elongated cylindrical branched and muscle cells are joined by dense intercalated discs
ii. Cardiac muscles are involuntary muscles known for highly rhythmic contractions and relaxations.
iii. They don’t fatigue easily
iv. They are found only in the heart.

Additional Question and Answers

I. Fill in the blanks
1. A group of cells which have common origin, structure and function is called tissue
2. Meristematic tissue meant only for growth
3. Softness of flowers, leaves and stem is due to the presence of Parenchyma
4. Sclerenchyma is a dead mechanical tissue
5. The cell wall of collenchyma is made up of hemicellulose or pectin
6. Sclerids are commonly called stone cells
7. Xylem is water conducting tissue
8. Phloem is Food conducting tissue
9. Dermal tissues are commonly called “skin of plant body” or epidemic
10. Squamous epithelium is also called pavement membrane
11. Cardiac muscle do not fatigue easily
12. Cardiac muscle found only in Heart
13. Adipose tissue consists of closely packed fat cells
14. the tissue attach the muscle to a bone Tendons
15. the tissue connects one bone to another is Ligaments
16. A large part of body weight is due to Bone tissue
17. RBC stands for Red Blood Cells(corpuscles)
18. WBC stands for White Blood Cells(corpuscles)
19. RBC is also called erythrocyte
20. RBC contain iron containing pigment called Haemoglobin
21. RBC count in normal healthy person is 4.5 to 5.5 million cells/cubic mm blood
22. Life span of RBC is 100 to 120 days
23. WBC are also called leucocyte
24. WBC count in healthy person is 6000 to 10000 cells/c mm
25. Platelets are also called Thrombocytes
26. Platelets are helps in blood clotting
27. 250000 platelets in 1 cubic cm3 of blood
28. Smallest bone in our body is in the middle ear
29. Lymph is a colourless fluid
30. Nerves responses to stimuli
31. All permanent tissues are derived from meristematic tissues
32. The stem of a tree becomes thicker every year due to the function of lateral meristem
33. Cell wall in collenchyma tissue is made up of hemicelluloses and pectin
34. Sclernchyma cells get deposited by lignin
35. The type of tissue present in the seed coat is sclereids
36. The specialized cells which regulate the passage of food in phloem tissue are companion cells
37. Tendons attach muscles to bone
38. The structural unit of bone tissue is called Haversian system
39. Lymph is different rom blood because it has No R.B.C and some proteins
40. The bunch of branches at the end of axon is called telodendrons

II. Answer the following questions.
1. Which are the two major groups of permanent tissues?
a. simple permanent tissue
b. complex permanent tissue.
2. What is arenchyma?
The parenchyma cells are loosely arranged with intercellular spaces filled with air, such parenchyma is called arenchyma.
3. What is chlorenchyma?
If parenchyma cells contain chloroplasts it is called chlorenchyma and perform photosynthesis
4. Write the features of meristematic tissue?
i. Cells have thin walls
ii. The cell divide actively and cause growth
iii. The cells are closely arranged without any intercellular spaces in between.
iv. The cells have a large nucleus, lack chloroplast
v. Vacuoles are either very small or absent
5. What are simple permanent tissues? Name them:
The tissues which have the cells of same kind, performing common functions are called simple permanent tissues.
They are three types,
i. Parenchyma
ii. Collenchyma
iii. Sclerenchyma
6. Why sclereids are called stone cells?
Sclerids are hard cells found in groups. They have more lignin than fibres hence they are called stone cells.
7. What are companion cells?
Some cells are closely associated with sieve tube called companion cells.
8. What are dermal tissues?
The outermost covering of all parts of a plant stem, leaves, flowers, fruit seeds and root is formed by protective tissue called dermal tissue.
9. List out the functions of dermal tissue:
a. It covers other tissue and is basically protective in nature.
b. above the ground it helps to reduce the water loss by evaporation.
c. it secretes a waxy coating called cuticle to prevent water loss.
d. Epidermis of the young root forms root hairs which absorb water and minerals.
e. In the leaves some epidermal cells form the openings called stomata which regulate gaseous
Exchange and transpiration.
10. Mention the types of animal tissue?
4 types of there in animal tissue
i. Epithelial tissue
ii. Muscular tissue
iii. Connective tissue
iv. Nerve tissue
11. What is epithelial tissue?
It is the simplest among animal tissues. It is found living the body parts both internally and externally
12. Mention the types of epithelial tissue and its shape of cell?
i. Squamous epithelium – flat and polygonal cells
ii. Columnar epithelium – elongated or column like cells
iii. Cuboidal epithelium – cube shaped cells
iv. Ciliated epithelium – cilia on their free surface
13. What is ciliated epithelium?
When the columnar epithelial cell contains cilia on their free surface it is called
ciliated epithelium.
Striped musclesUnstriped muscles
i. Cells are cylindrical and unbranchedi. Cells are spindle shaped
ii. Cross bands are present.ii. Cross bands are absent.
iii. Attached to bones, hence called skeletal muscles.iii. Not attached to bones, hence called smooth muscles.
iv. Voluntary in functioniv. involuntary in function

14. Mention the types of muscular tissue?
i. Striped muscle or striated or skeletal muscle
ii. Un striped muscle or smooth muscle
iii. Cardiac muscle
15. What are the characteristics of muscles?
a. contractivity – ability of skeletal muscle with force
b. excitability – property of the muscle to contract by nervous stimuli
16. What is connective tissue?
The tissue which connect various other tissues of the body and provide support are called connective tissue.
17. Write the types of connective tissue
Connective tissues are classified in to three types on the basis of nature of matrix
a) Loose connective tissue
b) Dense connective tissue
c) Fluid connective tissue
18. What is loose connective tissue?
The tissue in which the fibres in the matrix are loosely arranged is called loose connective tissue.
19. Write the functions for the following
a) Areolar tissue: defend against the microorganisms and foreign bodies enter the body
b) Adipose tissue: stores nutrient and protects the body as a shock absorber
c) Reticular tissue: provides the frame work for organs ex: liver spleen etc.
d) Tendons and ligaments: they help in the movement of bones
20. What is dense connective tissue?
Connective tissue consisting of hard matrix is called Dense connective tissue.
21. Mention the types of connective tissue
There are two types
a. cartilage
b. Bone
22. What is bone marrow?
The long and strong bones of the limbs are filled with a fluid called bone marrow
23. Which is structural unit of bone tissue?
Haversian system is the structural unit of bone tissue.
24. What is volkman’s canal?
The haversian canals of adjoining haversian systems are connected by transverse canals called volkman’s canal.
25. Mention the types of fluid connective tissue
a. Blood b. Lymph
26. Name the types of blood?
RBC- Red Blood Cells or corpuscles
WBC – white blood cells or corpuscles
27. Mention the types of WBC?
1. Grannular leucocytes
a) Eosinophil
b) Basophil
c) Neutrophil
2. AGrannular leucocytes
a) Monocyte
b) Lymphocyte
28. What is neuron?
Structural and functional unit of Nervous tissue is called neuron
29. Explain the structure of neuron?
The structural and functional unit of nerve tissue is the nerve cell or ‘neuron’. The nerve cell consists prominent nucleus is the cell body or cyton. The short projections arising from the cell body are called dendrites; the long extension of the cell body is the ‘axon’. Axon ends in the bunch of branches called telodendrons. The axon is covered by fatty sheath called myelin sheath.
30. Write the features of meristamatic tissue?
a. Meristamatic tissue composed of embryonic cells which divides and forming new cell
b. It occurs in growing regions like root tip stem apex and buds.
c. Cells have thin cell walls, large nucleus and are closely arranged.
31. Write the elements of xylem and its function?
a. Xylem vessel: conduction of water and salts.
b. Trachieds: helps in conduction of water and minerals.
c. Xylem parenchyma: conduction of water and storage of metabolic substances.
d. Xylem fibres: provides strength to other tissue.
32. Write the elements f phloem and its function?
a. Phloem parenchyma : storage of metabolic substances.
b. Phloem fibres: provides strength to the plants.
c. Sieve tube : conduction of food
d. companion cells: control the passage of food through phloem.
33. Name the different types of fibres in areolar tissues:
i. White fibres or collagen fibres
ii. Yellow fibres or elastic fibres
iii. Reticular fibres
34. The leaves of aquatic plants float. Why?
Because the parenchyma cells in the leaves of aquatic plants are loosely arranged with large intercellular spaces filled with air (aerenchyma).
35. Differentiate between striped and unstriped muscles:

36. Draw a neat diagram of collenchyma and label the parts:
37. Draw a neat diagram of phloem tissue and label the parts:
38. Draw a neat diagram of Neuron and label the parts:
39. Draw a neat diagram of meristematic tissue and label the parts:

40. Draw a neat diagram of cardiac muscle and label the parts:
41. Draw a neat diagram of loose connective tissue and label the parts:
42. Draw a neat diagram of Harversion system and label the parts: