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Development Notes

CHAPTER 1
Economics
Development
I Points to Remember
Economic development refers to the Economic progress of a country .
The change in economic system from agriculture to industry and services is called positive change of the economy .
The word underdevelopment denotes a backward undeveloped stagnant situation. The primary purpose of Economic progress is human welfare.
HDI Stands for human development Index
GEI stands for gender Equality index.
II Multiple Choice questions
1. India implemented Five year plans with a view to accelerate:-
a)Economic developmental activities b)Political developmental activities c)Social developmental activities d)All of the above
2. To which category of income countries does India belong
a)High income countries b)Middle income countries
c)Low income countries d)None of the above
3. Human development Index was framed in
a)1987 b)1990c)2000 d)2012
4. The credit of framing Human development Index goes to :-
a)Indian economist ,Dr Amartya sen b)British economist , Dr Winston c)American economist , Henry Herbert d)Pakistani economist , Mehbood ul Haq
5. According to the 2011 census, state of India ranked first in literacy rate.
a)Karnataka b)Rajasthan c)Kerala d)Bihar
III Fill in the Blanks with suitable words
1. The total value of all goods and services produced in a year in a country is called National income
2. Per Capita income is the average income of every individual in the country .
3. The Standard of living is measured by Gross National income percapita.
4. The average of life expectancy educational achievement and standard of living is called Human Development Index.
5. The Ratio of the number of women working in various jobs to that of men in the country is called women’s job participation Rate.
6. The economic progress of a country is known as economic development
7. The Primary purpose of economic progress is human welfare .
8. The united Nations Development Program has formed a criterion known as Human Development Index . In order to measure the quality of human life.
9. Gender ratio is the average number of women per 1000 men.
IV Answer the following in one sentence each
1. What is meant by economic development ?
The economic progress of a country is known as economic development
2. Name the indicators of income development
National income and per capita income are the indicators of income development
3. Expand HDI
Human development Index
4. How is per capita income arrived at?
The per capita income is arrived by dividing the national income by the total number of people in the country.
5. Define women Empowerment.
Encouraging women to take social economic and political decisions like men is called women empowerment
V Discuss the following in groups and answer the questions.
1. Which are the facilities necessary for people to have a good standard of living?
All the people of the country should be provided with nutritions food, adequate clothing, shelter, quality education people health care, potasle drinking water, quality sanitary facility, clean environment and judicial system. Only then the standard of living in the people will improve
2. What are the features of underdeveloped country
  • In an underdeveloped economy, the production and per capita income is also very less.
  • The majority of people in such a country cannot afford the basic necessities of food, clothing and shelter.
  • Majority of them are illiterates and superstitios.
  • People suffer from diseases due to lack of sanitation and medical facilities.
3. It is not appropriate to measure the development of country based on its national income why?
  • Economic progress cannot take place in a country where the population increases along with the increase in national income.
  • Comparison of economic development between countries which have different levels of population, will not be appropriate.
  • As a result, per capita income is being used as an indicator of development instead of national income.
  • Hence it is not appropriate to measure the development of a country based on its national income.
4. What are the indicators of human development ?
The Human Development Index is framed to measure longestivity, knowledge and standard of living through three indication namely :
1. life expectancy 2. educational achievements 3. standard of living
5. Per capita income cannot be a true measure of development why?
  • The increase in per capital income does not reveal the distribution of income among people.
  • Per capital income does not take into consideration the availability of education health or other similar social factors.
  • Hence attempts are made to adopt alternative parameters of measuring the development of a country .
6. Which are the factors responsible for enhancing man‟s life expectancy ?
Availability of nutritious food , excellent health and hygiene facilities clean environment etc enables man to live longer . All these factors are represented in life expectancy .
VI Extra question
1. What is National Income ?
The total income of all the people residing in country is called national income.
2. Define developing countries?
all countries with middle income and low income are referred as developing countries .
3. What is per capital income ?
It is the average income of each individual in the country.
4. What is life expectancy ?
The age till which the people of a country can expect to survive is called life expectancy .
5. What is Gender Ratio?
Gender ratio is the average number of women per 1000 men.
6. Bring out the measures taken to eliminate gender discrimination. or
List out the steps taken by the government to eradicate gender inequality.
After Independence our constitution has assured equal freedom , equality of opportunities to both men and women. Thus even women can benefit from the economic development of the country.
7. What is meant by women‟s Job participation rate?
The ratio of the number of women working to that of the total number of women in the country is known as „Women‟s Job Participation Rate‟.
8. Which are the two important necessary factors to achieve progress in all fields ?
Gender equality and women empowerment are two important necessary factors to achieve progress in all fields.
9. Why has gender equality Index been framed?
In order to identify gender equality in economic development, gender equality index has been framed at the international level.